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Dīgha Nikāya … long collection 34
Majjhima Nikāya … (sutta 148) Middle Collection 152
Saṁyutta Nikāya … themes 2900 425 in english
Aṅguttara Nikāya … (five remembrances) numerical enumerated etc. 10k 4xx in english
Khuddaka Nikāya … (solitude 4 8s) Khuddaka Nikāya—the Khuddakapāṭha, Dhammapada, Udāna, Itivuttaka, and Sutta Nipāta

The three core teachings of Buddhism are

  1. The Four Noble Truths
  2. The Noble Eightfold Path
  3. Anatta (no-self)

The Four Noble Truths are the foundation of Buddhist teachings. They are

  1. The truth of suffering (DUKKHA)
  2. The truth of the cause of suffering (SAMUDAYA)
  3. The truth of the end of suffering (NIRODHA)
  4. The truth of the path that leads to the end of suffering (MAGGA)

The Noble Eightfold Path is the path to the end of suffering. It consists of eight steps

  1. Right understanding
  2. Right thought
  3. Right speech
  4. Right action
  5. Right livelihood
  6. Right effort
  7. Right mindfulness
  8. Right concentration

Anatta (no-self) is the teaching that there is no permanent, unchanging self. This teaching is central to Buddhist philosophy because it allows us to let go of our attachments and live more自由に

These three core teachings are interconnected. The Four Noble Truths identify the problem of suffering and its cause. The Noble Eightfold Path is the solution to the problem of suffering. And the teaching of anatta helps us to understand the nature of suffering and how to overcome it.

Here is a simple analogy to help understand the three core teachings of Buddhism:

Imagine you are lost in a forest. The Four Noble Truths are like a map that shows you where you are and where you need to go. The Noble Eightfold Path is like the path that will lead you out of the forest. And the teaching of anatta is like the realization that you are not the forest. You are simply a traveler passing through.

When we understand and practice the three core teachings of Buddhism, we can find our way out of the forest of suffering and live a life of peace and happiness.

The 40 objects of meditation in Buddhism are

  1. The body
  2. Sensations
  3. Perceptions
  4. Mental formations
  5. Consciousness
  6. Breath
  7. Colors
  8. Sounds
  9. Smells
  10. Tastes
  11. Tactile objects
  12. The mind
  13. Thoughts
  14. Emotions
  15. Feelings
  16. Mental states
  17. Intentions
  18. Desires
  19. Aversion
  20. Ignorance
  21. Death
  22. Decay
  23. Disgust
  24. Impermanence
  25. Suffering
  26. Not-self
  27. The causes of suffering
  28. The path to the end of suffering
  29. Enlightenment
  30. The Buddha
  31. The Dharma
  32. The Sangha
  33. Generosity
  34. Morality
  35. Patience
  36. Effort
  37. Concentration
  38. Wisdom
  39. Liberation
  40. Nirvana

As you can see, the 40 objects of meditation include a number of objects related to death and dead bodies. These objects are included because they are part of the human experience and can be used to develop insight into the nature of reality.

The meditation on death, for example, is a powerful way to remind ourselves of our own mortality and to live our lives more fully. The meditation on decay and disgust can help us to develop compassion for others who are suffering. The meditation on impermanence can help us to appreciate the preciousness of life.

If you are interested in learning more about the 40 objects of meditation, I would recommend reading the following books:

* Ten kasinas (spheres): earth, water, fire, air, blue, yellow, red, white, space, and light

* Ten asubhas (impurities): a bloated corpse, a discolored corpse, a festering corpse, a fissured corpse, a gnawed corpse, a dismembered corpse, a scattered corpse, a bleeding corpse, a worm-eaten corpse, and a skeleton

* Ten anussatis (recollections)

the Buddha, the Dhamma, the Sangha, generosity, morality, the devas, death, breathing, the body, and the impermanence of all things

* Four brahmaviharas (divine abodes)

loving-kindness, compassion, sympathetic joy, and equanimity

* Four arupajhanas (formless states)

the sphere of infinite space, the sphere of infinite consciousness, the sphere of nothingness, and the sphere of neither perception nor non-perception

* One ahare patikula sanna (perception of the loathsomeness of food)

* One catudhatuvavatthana (analysis of the four elements): earth, water, fire, and air

These forty objects of meditation can be used to develop concentration, insight, and wisdom. They can also be used to cultivate specific qualities, such as loving-kindness, compassion, and equanimity.

It is important to note that not all forty objects of meditation are suitable for everyone. Some objects, such as the asubhas, can be difficult to meditate on, especially for beginners. It is important to choose an object of meditation that is appropriate for your own level of practice and experience.

If you are interested in learning more about the forty objects of meditation, there are many resources available online and in libraries. You can also find meditation teachers who can guide you in your practice.

The five poisons

are a Buddhist concept that refers to five negative mental states that can lead to suffering:

  • Attachment: Desire and craving for things or people.
  • Aversion: Hatred, dislike, and avoidance of things or people.
  • Ignorance: Not understanding the true nature of reality.
  • Pride: Arrogance, conceit, and a sense of superiority.
  • Jealousy: Envy, resentment, and a desire to have what others have.

The five antidotes

The antidotes to the five poisons are:

  • Attachment: Generosity and non-attachment.
  • Aversion: Compassion and loving-kindness.
  • Ignorance: Wisdom and understanding.
  • Pride: Humility and modesty.
  • Jealousy: Joy for others and contentment.

By cultivating the antidotes to the five poisons, we can reduce our suffering and create a more peaceful and harmonious life.

Here are some specific examples of how to cultivate the antidotes to the five poisons:


  • Practice generosity by giving away things that you don't need or want.
  • Practice non-attachment by letting go of your expectations and desires.


  • Practice compassion by meditating on the suffering of others.
  • Practice loving-kindness by sending out good wishes to all beings.


  • Study the Buddhist teachings on the nature of reality.
  • Practice meditation to develop your wisdom and understanding.


  • Reflect on your own shortcomings and imperfections.
  • Practice humility by serving others and putting their needs before your own.


  • Rejoice in the success and happiness of others.
  • Cultivate contentment by appreciating what you have.

It is important to note that cultivating the antidotes to the five poisons is a lifelong journey. There is no quick fix or easy solution. However, by practicing regularly and consistently, we can make progress and reduce our suffering.